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The deep sky

This guide will help you better understand deep-sky objects and also provide lots of targets for your telescope.
Eagle Nebula
Located in the constellation of Serpens the Serpent, the Eagle Nebula is a very luminous open cluster of stars surrounded by dust and gas. The three pillars at the center of the image, made famous by a Hubble Space Telescope image, are being sculpted by the intense radiation from the hot stars in the cluster.
T.A. Rector (NRAO / AUI / NSF and NOAO / AURA / NSF) and B.A. Wolpa (NOAO / AURA / NSF)
Deep-sky objects are celestial objects that exist outside our solar system. Three major types of deep-sky objects are nebulae, star clusters, and galaxies. The word nebula is Latin and means "cloud." A nebula (plural = nebulae), therefore, is a cloud of gas and dust in space. Three types of nebulae exist: bright, dark, and planetary.

Bright (or diffuse) nebulae are frequently places of star formation. When stars begin to form, the region becomes so hot that the stars' radiation excites the gas of a nebula, causing it to shine. This type of bright nebula is known as an "emission nebula." The process by which the gas (hydrogen) is excited is called "ionization." Neutral, non-ionized hydrogen is designated HI. Ionized hydrogen is represented as HII. For this reason, emission nebulae often are referred to as HII regions.
Orion Nebula (M42)
The Orion Nebula (M42) appears in a composite of four 60-minute exposures taken with a 6-inch f/9 refractor.
Jason Ware
Bright nebulae
If the stars are not hot enough to cause ionization of the surrounding gas, the starlight is reflected by the dust and can be seen as the second type of nebula — a "reflection nebula." These nebulae look blue for the same reason our daytime sky appears blue — the light is being scattered throughout the nebula. A lot of nebulae have both emission and reflection components because some of the gas may be too far from the stars to be ionized by their radiation.

The first bright nebula discovered was the Orion Nebula (M42) in 1612. The first reflection nebula discovered was M78, also in Orion, in 1780. Other well-known, diffuse nebulae are M8, M16, M17, M20, and M43. M16 is actually a double object, a star cluster (NGC 6611) and a famous nebula known as the Eagle Nebula (IC 4703). M45, the Pleiades, also contains a reflection nebula.
A list of the brightest nebulae
Catalog nameR.A.Dec.Size
NGC 28100h53m 56°36'35' by 30'
IC 6300h59m 60°56'10' by 3'
IC 179502h26m 61°59'12' by 12'
NGC 143203h46m 24°09'60' by 40'
NGC 149904h01m 36°38'160' by 40'
NGC 149104h03m 51°19'6' by 9'
NGC 162404h41m 50°26'5' by 5'
NGC 178805h06m-03°21'2' by 2'
NGC 193105h31m 34°12'4' by 4'
NGC 195205h35m 22°02'8' by 4'
IC 43105h41m-01°31'8' by 5'
IC 43205h42m-01°34'10' by 10'
IC 43405h42m-02°19'90' by 30'
NGC 202305h42m-02°19'10' by 8'
NGC 197605h35m-05°28'90' by 60'
NGC 199905h36m-06°44'2' by 2'
NGC 206405h47m 00°01'10' by 10'
NGC 217006h07m-06°23'2' by 2'
NGC 218206h09m-06°21'3' by 2'
NGC 217506h10m 20°29'40' by 30'
NGC 223806h33m 04°58'80' by 60'
NGC 224506h33m 10°10'2' by 2'
NGC 224706h33m 10°21'2' by 2'
NGC 226106h39m 08°43'2' by 1'
NGC 226406h41m 09°54'10' by 7'
IC 217707h04m-10°25'20' by 20'
NGC 246707h52m-26°28'8' by 7'
IC 460616h29m-26°37'60' by 40'
NGC 651418h02m-23°00'20' by 20'
NGC 652318h04m-24°20'45' by 30'
NGC 655918h10m-23°59'15' by 10'
IC 127418h11m-23°44'20' by 5'
NGC 659018h17m-19°44'4' by 3'
NGC 661118h19m-13°49'120' by 25'
NGC 661818h21m-15°59'40' by 30'
NGC 688820h13m 38°19'20' by 10'
IC 1318A20h17m 41°49'45' by 25'
NGC 691420h25m 42°19'3' by 3'
IC 1318B20h28m 40°00'45' by 20'
IC 506720h51m 44°21'25' by 10'
IC 507620h56m 47°24'10' by 10'
NGC 702321h02m 68°12'10' by 8'
NGC 712921h42m 66°04'2' by 2'
NGC 738022h47m 58°01'25' by 20'
NGC 753823h14m 61°29'8' by 7'
NGC 763523h20m 61°11'15' by 8'
Horsehead Nebula
The Horsehead, also known as Barnard 33, is a cold, dark cloud of gas and dust, silhouetted against the bright nebula, IC 434.
David Hanon
Dark nebulae
Dark nebulae are clouds of dust and cold gas that can be seen because they obscure light from stars or bright nebulae behind them. The shapes of dark nebulae are among the strangest in the sky. Some dark nebulae, such as the Horsehead Nebula in Orion, are small and difficult to see even with large telescopes. Others, such as the Coal Sack in Crux, are large and easy to see with the naked eye.

The darkness of these objects is due to dust grains within the clouds and to the presence of extremely cold hydrogen molecules. The largest of the dark nebulae, called "molecular clouds," are huge areas of star formation. The clouds must be cold or the radiation will heat up the individual atoms and prevent gravity from collecting them together. This would keep the gas from condensing into stars.

The first catalog of dark nebulae was prepared by American astronomer Edward Emerson Barnard (1857-1923). Use the following list to locate and observe the best of Barnard's objects.
Great objects from Barnard's catalog
Catalog nameCommon nameR.A.Dec.Size
B33Horsehead05h41m-02.56' by 4'
B42Rho Ophiuchi16h29m-24.312' by 12'
B65/6/7Pipe (stem)17h21m-26.8300' by 60'
B72Snake17h24m-23.630' by 30'
B78Pipe (bowl)17h33m-25.7200' by 140'
B86Ink Spot18h03m-27.85' by 3'
B87Parrot's Head18h04m-32.712' by 12'
B142/3Barnard's E19h41m 11.0110' by 80'
B348/9Cygnus Rift20h37m 42.2240' by 240'
We are looking down a tunnel of gas cast off by a dying star thousands of years ago. Look for elongated dark clumps of material embedded in the gas at the edge of the nebula, and also for the dying central star floating in a blue haze of hot gas. The colors represent three different chemical elements: helium (blue), oxygen (green), and nitrogen (red).
Planetary nebulae
A planetary nebula is the most common end product of stellar evolution. Stars about as massive as the Sun eject mass when they become red giants near the end of their lives. After about 10,000 years (a short period, astronomically speaking), the inner core of the star collapses and the star pulsates, ejecting much of its outer envelope. This leaves a small star called a white dwarf. The ejected envelope becomes a spherical shell of cool, thin matter expanding into space at 5-25 miles/second (10-40 kilometers/second) — a planetary nebula.

The star (now called the central star of the nebula) is extremely hot, reaching temperatures of 200,000 Kelvin. It also emits a large amount of ultraviolet radiation. This radiation ionizes the gas of the expanding planetary nebula and causes it to glow. Planetary nebulae have short lives, at least visually. As the shell expands, the white dwarf's energy can excite the gas, but only out to a certain distance. So after 10,000 to 50,000 years, the planetary nebula stops glowing. It's still expanding, but we can no longer see it. Most astronomers agree that a planetary nebula is the fate of our Sun in approximately 5 billion years.

On July 12, 1764, French comet hunter Charles Messier (1730–1817) discovered the first planetary nebula and made it number 27 on his famous list of objects that are not comets. M27 also is known as the Dumbbell Nebula. It took 15 years before the next planetary nebula was discovered. The object was the now famous Ring Nebula (M57), and it was found in January 1779 by another French astronomer, Antoine Darquier (1718–1802), who compared it to a "fading planet." The German-born, English astronomer William Herschel (1738–1822) christened these objects planetary nebulae because they resembled — in shape and color — Uranus, the planet he had discovered only a few years before.

There are roughly 1,000 known planetary nebula in our neighborhood of the galaxy. A typical planetary nebula is less than one light-year across. Planetary nebulae usually have a blue, green, bluish-green, or greenish-blue color. Observers often report different colors for the same nebula. What color will a particular planetary appear to you? This is a little tricky to answer. The problem is that the wavelength of the light is close to the border between perceived green color and perceived blue color. Thus, even a very slight shift in a person's color response could cause the color to appear either greenish or bluish.
Some of the finest planetary nebulae
Common nameCatalog nameR.A.Dec.
Blinking PlanetaryNGC 682619h45m50°32'
Blue Snowball NGC 766223h26m42°32'
Box NebulaNGC 630917h14m-12°55'
Bug NebulaNGC 630217h14m-37d06'
Cat's Eye NebulaNGC 654317h59m66°38'
Clown Face NebulaNGC 239207h29m20°55'
Crescent NebulaNGC 644517h49m-20°01'
Dumbbell NebulaNGC 6853 (M27)19h59m22°43'
Eight Burst NebulaNGC 313210h07m-40°26'
Eskimo NebulaNGC 239207h29m20°55'
Fetus NebulaNGC 700821h01m54°33'
Ghost of JupiterNGC 324210h25m-18°39'
Helix NebulaNGC 729322h30m-20°50'
Little Dumbbell NebulaNGC 650/651 (M76)01h42m51°35'
Little Gem NebulaNGC 681819h44m-14°09'
Owl NebulaNGC 3587 (M97)11h15m55°01'
Red Spider NebulaNGC 653718h05m-19°51'
Ring NebulaNGC 6720 (M57)18h54m33°02'
Saturn NebulaNGC 700921h04m-11°22'
Southern Ring NebulaNGC 313210h07m-40°26'
The Pleiades (M45)
Located 440 light-years from Earth in the constellation Taurus, the Pleiades cluster includes six naked-eye stars (and one variable star that may have once been naked-eye as well) along with thousands of other, fainter stars. The young stars are surrounded by the glow of their own light reflected by clouds of interstellar gas.
John Chumack
Star clusters
A star cluster is a group of stars loosely held together by gravity. There are three types of star clusters: associations, open clusters and globular clusters. Associations contain dozens of stars and resemble open clusters except that they are poorer in stars. Here, we'll concentrate on the two other types of star clusters.

Open clusters. Located within the disk of the Milky Way Galaxy, open clusters also are known as "galactic clusters." The Beehive (M44), the Pleiades (M45), and the Hyades clusters have numerous historical references. In the second century, Ptolemy mentioned Melotte 111 in Coma Berenices and M7 in Scorpius. Not until Galileo (1564-1642) trained his telescope on the Beehive, however, was it discovered that these objects are made of individual stars.

Sparse open clusters contain less than a hundred stars, while rich ones may have thousands. Open clusters form from nebulae. All open clusters are relatively young objects, generally no more than a few hundred million years old. We know the open clusters we observe are young because given enough time, the stars in an open cluster disperse due to gravitational interaction within the cluster. If we were able to follow a single open cluster from its formation, we would see the cluster disperse stars throughout its entire galactic journey. Approximately 1,700 open clusters are known.

Open clusters are pretty. This makes them fun to look at for beginning amateur astronomers. But many advanced amateurs spend a great deal of time observing open clusters as well. Compared with other deep-sky objects, open clusters are relatively large. This means you will generally be using low-power eyepieces, which provide wide fields of view. Some clusters are large enough and bright enough that binoculars will provide more satisfying views.

Take your time when observing an open cluster. Examine the field of view closely. Try to discern the members of the cluster as opposed to stars that only appear in the field of view. This is easy in many cases, but it can be a real trick when the cluster lies within the area of the Milky Way. Also, large telescopes sometimes can hinder the identification of cluster stars, causing confusion by making so many background stars visible.
Fifty bright open clusters
Catalog name Constellation Magnitude
M45 Taurus 1.6
M7 Scorpius 3.3
M44 Cancer 3.9
NGC 869/884 Perseus 4.4
NGC 2244 Monoceros 4.8
NGC 2362 Canis Major 4.8
M41 Canis Major 5.0
M47 Puppis 5.0
M39 Cygnus 5.3
NGC 2244 Monoceros 5.3
NGC 6633 Ophiuchus 5.3
M6 Scorpius 5.5
M35 Gemini 5.6
NGC 7686 Cassiopeia 5.6
M34 Perseus 5.8
M23 Sagittarius 5.9
M48 Hydra 6.0
NGC 1647 Taurus 6.0
NGC 1746 Taurus 6.0
NGC 1981 Orion 6.0
NGC 2264 Monoceros 6.0
NGC 2301 Monoceros 6.0
M67 Cancer 6.1
NGC 7160 Cepheus 6.1
M25 Sagittarius 6.2
M37 Auriga 6.2
NGC 1545 Perseus 6.2
M50 Monoceros 6.3
NGC 6940 Vulpecula 6.3
NGC 457 Cassiopeia 6.4
NGC 7243 Lacerta 6.4
M21 Sagittarius 6.5
M36 Auriga 6.5
M93 Puppis 6.5
NGC 129 Cassiopeia 6.5
NGC 654 Cassiopeia 6.5
NGC 752 Andromeda 6.5
NGC 663 Cassiopeia 6.5
NGC 1528 Perseus 6.5
M16 Serpens 6.6
M46 Puppis 6.6
NGC 1027 Cassiopeia 6.7
NGC 2343 Monoceros 6.7
NGC 2423 Puppis 6.7
NGC 7209 Lacerta 6.7
NGC 7789 Cassiopeia 6.7
M11 Scutum 6.8
NGC 7036 Cygnus 6.8
M103 Cassiopeia 6.9
M38 Auriga 7.0
This image of M13 was taken by the 3.6-meter Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope atop Mauna Kea.
CFHT / Coelum / Jean-Charles Cuillandre
Globular clusters
The other main cluster type is a globular cluster. These objects are spherical in shape and the greatest concentration of stars lies toward their centers. Globular clusters have many more stars than open clusters, ranging from about ten thousand stars to more than one million stars. Globular clusters are old. Most are in excess of 10 billion years old.

What really sets globulars apart, however, isn't their age, but their location. Open clusters lie within the spiral arms (disk) of our Milky Way Galaxy. Globular clusters surround the Milky Way in a spherical distribution. This structure is often called the "halo." Studying the distribution of globular clusters around the Scorpius-Sagittarius area correctly led Harlow Shapley (1885–1972) to conclude that the center of our galaxy must lie in that direction.

M22, a beautiful object in Sagittarius, was the first globular cluster to be discovered, in 1665. Twelve years later, the great southern globular Omega Centauri was observed by Edmund Halley (1656–1742). Today, about 200 globular clusters are known to surround our galaxy. Globulars have been observed around many other galaxies as well. As an example, the giant elliptical galaxy M87 in Virgo contains more than one thousand globular clusters.

In the entire deep-sky menagerie, no group excites new observers more than globular clusters. Even seasoned amateur astronomers consider globulars to be the most rewarding objects to observe. It's easy to see why. Many are bright enough to be seen even from urban settings. But when observed from a dark site, these objects explode with detail. The use of higher magnifications brings whole new levels of detail to these clusters. Faint fuzz resolves itself into individual sparkling points of light that form intricate patterns.
The 25 brightest globular clusters
Catalog nameCommon nameConstellationMagnitude
NGC 5139Omega CentauriCentaurus3.9
NGC 10447 TucTucana4.0
NGC 6656M22Sagittarius5.2
NGC 6397Ara5.3
NGC 6752Pavo5.3
NGC 6121M4Scorpius5.4
NGC 5904M5Serpens5.4
NGC 6205M13Hercules5.8
NGC 6218M12Ophiuchus6.1
NGC 2808Carina6.2
NGC 6809M55Sagittarius6.3
NGC 6541Corona Australis6.3
NGC 5272M3Canes Venatici6.3
NGC 7078M15Pegasus6.3
NGC 6266M62Ophiuchus6.4
NGC 6341M92Hercules6.5
NGC 6254M10Ophiuchus6.6
NGC 7089M2Aquarius6.6
NGC 362Tucana6.8
NGC 6723Sagittarius6.8
NGC 6388Scorpius6.8
NGC 6723M19Ophiuchus6.8
NGC 7099M30Capricornus6.9
NGC 3201Vela6.9
NGC 6626M28Sagittarius6.9
James R. Foster of Los Angeles, California, recorded this image of M33 with his 13.1-inch classical Cassegrain reflector at f/7.5. He made a 100-minute exposure on hypered Kodak Tech Pan 2415, plus 80-, 70-, and 70-minute exposures on hypered Kodak PPF 400. All exposures were later electronically combined.
James R. Foster
You might wonder how objects composed of up to a trillion or more individual stars could be so difficult to observe. Of course, the answer is distance. Galaxies are so far away that, except for a small number, they all appear small and faint. Even advanced observers regard observing faint galaxies as a challenge.

Today, we are indebted to the great American astronomer Edwin Hubble (1889–1953) for developing a simple classification scheme for galaxies. Hubble first mentioned this in a paper he wrote in 1922. Four years later, he expanded it and added some illustrations. Finally, in 1936, Hubble provided a better explanation of the classification scheme in his book The Realm of the Nebulae. And it was in this book that the famous "tuning fork" diagram first appeared.

Hubble's scheme described several different main types of galaxies: ellipticals, spirals, and barred spirals. That's three. An argument for a fourth Hubble type (off the tuning fork) could be made. The fourth class contains "irregular galaxies," essentially every galaxy not on the fork.
Clusters of galaxies
After stars form, they arrange themselves into clusters. So do galaxies. Clusters of galaxies may be made up of a handful of galaxies or as many as a thousand. As with star clusters, clusters of galaxies are held together by mutual gravitational attraction. Please note that a galactic cluster and a cluster of galaxies are totally different. The first is a group of stars (also known as an open cluster). The second is a group of galaxies. The most famous cluster of galaxies is the one that contains our Milky Way. Known as the Local Group, it is composed of almost 40 members.

Two other well-known and well-observed clusters of galaxies are the Virgo cluster and the Fornax cluster. The Virgo cluster lies nearly 50 million light-years from Earth and is a bright cluster. A number of Messier objects are members of it, including M49, M49, M60, M84, M85, M86, M87, M88, M89, M90, M98, M99, and M100. In addition, more than one hundred NGC galaxies belong to the Virgo cluster.

Many observers think the Fornax cluster is the finest for amateur astronomers to observe. Eighteen galaxies make up the cluster. The brightest is NGC 1316 at visual magnitude 8.8. NGC 1399, magnitude 9.8, is the next easiest to see. NGC 1365 is third at magnitude 9.5. This galaxy is a barred spiral seen face on, with open spiral arms. In a wide-field, high-power eyepiece, up to ten members of this cluster of galaxies can be viewed.
Superclusters of galaxies
The largest separate structures in the universe, and some would say the structures that define the shape of our universe, are superclusters of galaxies. The Local Group, which contains the Milky Way, belongs to a supercluster of galaxies called the Local Supercluster. The Local Group is at one end and the Virgo cluster is near its center. The major axis of the Local Supercluster stretches 125 to 150 million light-years. Other nearby superclusters of galaxies include the Hydra-Centaurus Supercluster, which lies at a distance of about 150 million light-years and the Perseus Supercluster, which is roughly 220 million light-years away.
Galaxies brighter than 10th magnitude
Catalog nameR.A.Dec.Magnitude
NGC 22400h43m 41°16'4.36
NGC 59801h34m 30°40'6.27
NGC 512813h25m-43°01'7.84
NGC 303109h56m 69°04'7.89
NGC 25300h48m-25°17'8.04
NGC 523613h37m-29°52'8.20
NGC 545714h03m 54°21'8.31
NGC 5500h15m-39°13'8.42
NGC 30000h55m-37°41'8.72
NGC 20500h40m 41°41'8.92
NGC 240307h37m 65°36'8.93
NGC 519413h30m 47°12'8.96
NGC 459412h40m-11°37'8.98
NGC 473612h51m 41°07'8.99
NGC 22100h43m 40°52'9.03
IC 34203h47m 68°06'9.10
NGC 425812h19m 47°18'9.10
NGC 674419h10m-63°51'9.14
NGC 131303h18m-66°30'9.20
NGC 303409h56m 69°41'9.30
NGC 494513h05m-49°28'9.30
NGC 505513h16m 42°02'9.31
NGC 682219h45m-14°48'9.31
NGC 482612h57m 21°41'9.36
NGC 447212h30m 07°59'9.37
NGC 129103h17m-41°06'9.39
NGC 131603h23m-37°12'9.42
NGC 448612h31m 12°23'9.59
NGC 106802h43m-00°01'9.61
NGC 694620h35m 60°09'9.61
NGC 779323h58m-32°35'9.63
NGC 362711h20m 12°59'9.65
NGC 24700h47m-20°46'9.67
NGC 290309h32m 21°30'9.68
NGC 463112h42m 32°32'9.75
NGC 464912h44m 11°33'9.81
NGC 352111h06m-00°02'9.83
NGC 440612h26m 12°57'9.83
NGC 311510h05m-07°43'9.87
IC 161301h05m 02°07'9.88
NGC 62801h37m 15°47'9.95
NGC 444912h28m 44°06'9.99
Additional online observing tools from Astronomy magazine


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